Not known for his high marks at school, B-P nevertheless took an examination for the army and placed second among several hundred applicants. He was commissioned straight into the 13th Hussars, bypassing the officer training establishments. Later, he became their Honorary Colonel.
In 1876, he went to India as a young army officer and specialised in scouting, map-making and reconnaissance. His success soon led to his training other soldiers. B-P's methods were unorthodox for those days; small units or patrols working together under one leader, with special recognition for those who did well. For proficiency, B-P awarded his trainees badges resembling the traditional design of the north compass point. Today's universal Scout badge is very similar.
Later he was stationed in the Balkans, South Africa and Malta. He returned to Africa to help defend the town of Mafeking during its 217-day siege at the start of the Boer War. It provided crucial tests for B-P's scouting skills. The courage and resourcefulness shown by the young soldiers at Mafeking made a lasting impression on him. In turn, his deeds made a lasting impression in England.
Returning home in 1903 he found that he had become a national hero. He also found that the small handbook he had written for soldiers ("Aids to Scouting") was being used by youth leaders and teachers all over the country to teach observation and woodcraft.
He spoke at meetings and rallies and while at a Boys' Brigade gathering he was asked by its Founder, Sir William Smith, to work out a scheme for giving greater variety in the training of boys in good citizenship.
Beginnings of the Movement
B-P set to work rewriting "Aids to Scouting", this time for a younger audience. In 1907, he held an experimental camp on Brownsea Island in Dorset, to try out his ideas. He brought together 22 boys, some from private schools and some from working class homes, and took them camping under his leadership. This was to be considered the starting point of the Scout Movement.
"Scouting for Boys" was published in 1908 in six fortnightly parts. Sales of the book were tremendous. Boys formed themselves into Scout Patrols to try out ideas. What had been intended as a training aid for existing organisations became the handbook of a new and ultimately worldwide Movement. "Scouting for Boys" has since been translated into all of the major languages of the world.
Spontaneously, boys began to form Scout Troops all over the country. In September 1908 B-P had to set up an office to deal with the large number of enquiries, which were pouring in. Scouting spread quickly until it was established in practically all parts of the world.
He retired from the army in 1910, at the age of 53, on the advice of King Edward VII who suggested that he could now do more valuable service for his country within the Scout Movement.
With all his enthusiasm and energy now directed to the development of Boy Scouting and Girl Guiding, he travelled to all parts of the world, to encourage growth and give inspiration.
In 1912, he married Olave Soames who was his constant support and companion in all this work, and who became greatly involved in Guiding and Scouting. They had three children (Peter, Heather and Betty). Lady Olave Baden-Powell was later known as World Chief Guide.
Chief Scout of the world
The first World Scout Jamboree took place at Olympia, London in 1920. At its closing scene B-P was unanimously acclaimed as Chief Scout of the World.
At the third World Jamboree, also held in England, the Prince of Wales announced that B-P would be given Peerage by H.M. the King. B-P took the title of Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell; Gilwell Park being the international training centre he had created for Scout leaders.
B-P wrote no fewer than 32 books. He received honorary degrees from at least six universities. In addition, 28 foreign orders and decorations and 19 foreign Scout awards were bestowed upon him.
In 1938, suffering from ill-health, B-P returned to Africa, which had meant so much in his life, to live in semi-retirement at Nyeri, Kenya. Even there, he found it difficult to curb his energies, and he continued to produce books and sketches.
On 8 January 1941, at 83 years of age, B-P died. He was buried in a simple grave at Nyeri within sight of Mount Kenya. On his head stone are the words "Robert Baden-Powell, Chief Scout of the World" surmounted by the Boy Scout and Girl Guide Badges. Lady Olave Baden-Powell carried on his work, promoting Scouting and Girl Guiding around the world until her death in 1977. She is buried alongside Lord Baden-Powell at Nyeri.
B-P prepared a farewell message to his Scouts, for publication after his death. His advice of “try and leave this world a little better than you found it” is as relevant –if not more- today and continues to inspire young people all over the world.
Baden-Powell Last Message
"Dear Scouts - if you have ever seen the play 'Peter Pan' you will remember how the pirate chief was always making his dying speech because he was afraid that possible, when the time came for him to die, he might not have time to get it off his chest. It is much the same with me, and so, although I am not at this moment dying, I shall be doing so one of these days and I want to send you a parting word of goodbye.
Remember, it is the last time you will ever hear from me, so think it over.
I have had a most happy life and I want each one of you to have a happy life too.
I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely being successful in your career, nor by self - indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so you can enjoy life when you are a man.
Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy. Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one.
But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it and when your turn comes to die, you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best. 'Be Prepared' in this way, to live happy and to die happy - stick to your Scout Promise always - even after you have ceased to be a boy - and God help you to do it.